Develop and present an Educational, Narrative PowerPoint. In the presentation be sure to examine the pathophysiological factors that influence the incidence and manifestations of acute, episodic, and chronic diseases in populations across the lifespan.

Educate the community about the following topic: Atherosclerosis

Narrative, PowerPoint Contents to include:
a. Risk factors and causes
b. Possible consequences
c. Prevention Strategies
d. Treatment Modalities

Reference all sources on a separate reference slide at the end of the presentation and cite each source in the body of the presentation using 7th edition APA format.

Identify the sources of any pictures you use, being sure to cite them correctly in 7th edition APA style, using in-text citations.


 

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Fifty-four-year-old Fred is complaining of a headache that started about 2 weeks ago. For the past 2 days, the headache has increased in severity, and he is photophobic and has uncial rigidity and projectile vomiting. CT scan results show an arteriovenous malformation in the basal artery and a small hemorrhagic bleed in the middle meningeal artery.

How is the concept of “disorders of brain function” related to Fred’s presenting symptoms?
What aspects of cerebral circulation would come into play in Fred’s case?


 

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A 49-year-old female is discussing age-related changes with the nurse practitioner. She states that she is having irregular periods and “hot flashes.”

What other assessment data would substantiate the diagnosis of menopause?
What type of therapy would you expect this patient to receive? Why?


 

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Discuss developing collaborative relationships with clients when teaching concepts concerning pathological states to individuals and families.

Case Study 4: Mechanisms of Endocrine Control

Leda is a 38-year-old woman who began to experience weight gain, mood swings, and weakness. When her periods became irregular, she went to her physician. Leda’s physician heard the symptoms Leda was concerned about and then ordered a 24-hour free cortisol urine test and an overnight dexamethasone suppression test and measured her serum ACTH levels. The results indicated that Leda had Cushing disease, a condition caused by the hypersecretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary and resulting in elevated cortisol levels. To confirm the diagnosis, Leda’s physician ordered a cranial MRI to identify the presence of a pituitary tumor.

a. The dexamethasone test involves the administration of a synthetic glucocorticoid (e., cortisol). Knowing what you do about negative feedback mechanisms, how might this test be used to assess pituitary function?
b. Describe how the steroid hormones, like cortisol, are metabolized in the body. What are the advantages of using a 24-hour urine test to measure this hormone?
c. Protein-based and steroid-based hormones trigger cellular responses in different ways. What are the differences between the mechanism of action of ACTH and cortisol on target cells?


 

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Darlene, age 32 years, has been having back pain for a number of years, ever since suffering a compressed L2 disc as the result of a motor vehicle accident that led to surgery and extensive physiotherapy. Now she is missing time from work as a secretary because of constant pain. Darlene has been referred to you for chronic pain.

a. As the nurse practitioner working with Darlene, what aspects of disorders of pain are important to understand?
b. How would you effectively manage Darlene’s pain at this time?


 

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In your discussion, be sure to evaluate the presence and effects of alterations in the homeostatic state secondary to gender, genetic, ethnic, and temporal variables.

Case Study : Respiratory Tract Infections, Neoplasms, and Childhood Disorders

Patricia was called at work by a woman at the local day care center. She told Patricia to come and pick up her son because he was not feeling well. Her son, 3½-year-old Marshall, had been feeling tired and achy when he woke up. While at daycare, his cheeks had become red, and he was warm to touch. He did not want to play with his friends, and by the time Patricia arrived, he was crying. Later that afternoon, Marshall’s condition worsened. He had fever, chills, a sore throat, runny nose, and a dry hacking cough. Suspecting Marshall had influenza, Patricia wrapped him up and took him to the community health care clinic.

1. Why did Marshall’s presentation lead Patricia to think he had influenza and not a cold? Why is it important to medically evaluate and diagnose a potential influenza infection?
2. Describe the pathophysiology of the influenza virus. Outline the properties of influenza A antigens that allow them to exert their effects in the host.
3. Marshall may be at risk of contracting secondary bacterial pneumonia. Why is this so? Explain why cyanosis may be a feature associated with pneumonia.


 

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A predominant theme in research and practice today is obesity, which is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide in all ages. As a future nurse practitioner:

How would you approach or discuss the topic of obesity and diet with your adult or geriatric patients?

What are the possible health consequences of obesity and what factors need to be taken into consideration when treating the obese patient who also has multiple comorbidities (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol)?


 

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A 41-year-old obese male patient is diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF). He is told to begin a moderate exercise routine with a healthy diet and is prescribed several medications — including a diuretic.

Based on your knowledge of the kidney and the disease of CHF, what factors would be important in selecting a specific diuretic? How would you explain to this patient how it works?
If this patient developed a disease that caused the renal blood flow to be diminished, how might this impact the medication he is taking for his congestive heart failure? As his health care provider, how would you change his treatment in this situation?


 

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A 41-year-old obese male patient is diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF). He is told to begin a moderate exercise routine with a healthy diet and is prescribed several medications — including a diuretic.

Based on your knowledge of the kidney and the disease of CHF, what factors would be important in selecting a specific diuretic? How would you explain to this patient how it works?
If this patient developed a disease that caused the renal blood flow to be diminished, how might this impact the medication he is taking for his congestive heart failure? As his health care provider, how would you change his treatment in this situation?


 

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Two-week-old Tabitha has infant respiratory distress syndrome. Eighty-year-old Anthony has emphysema, and 50-year-old Jenny has pulmonary fibrosis.

Why are the mechanics of breathing greatly compromised in all of these cases?


 

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Case Study 1: Disorders of Hemostasis

Leona is 52 years old and smokes. She is also overweight and has atherosclerosis. When she was given a 2-week vacation from work, she packed up her bags and flew from Minnesota to Sydney, Australia, for the trip she always wanted to take. Unfortunately, just 3 days after she arrived, she was hospitalized when her left calf became inflamed, causing her considerable pain. The physician attending to her told her she developed a deep vein thrombosis.

1. Explain, using your knowledge of hypercoagulability, why the trip to Australia contributed to Leona’s DVT? Why was Leona already at risk for thrombus development?
2. How does Leona’s atherosclerosis affect platelet function? Conversely, what is the effect of increased platelet activity on the development of atherosclerosis?
3. How do atherosclerosis and immobility promote changes in blood coagulation?
4. When Leona was in hospital, she received heparin therapy. Explain why this course of action was taken to treat her DVT. Why was she not given heparin tablets to take back to the hotel with her?


 

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A 56-year-old patient with newly diagnosed stage 1 hypertension has been referred to you for counseling regarding lifestyle modifications. He is married, with four children — two in high school, two in college. His job as a senior vice-president for a major retail chain requires that he work long hours and frequently eat at restaurants. He smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, has a body mass index (BMI) of 29 kg/m2, and a waist-hip ratio of 1.6. He usually drinks one to two dry martinis to relax after he gets home from work.

1, How would you develop a realistic plan to help this patient reduce his blood pressure and prevent complications?
2, Which risk factors would be among your top two or three priorities for this patient, and what interventions or recommendations would you provide for modifying these?


 

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In your discussion, be sure to integrate your knowledge of advanced pathophysiology across the lifespan with the clinical implications for the advanced practice nurse

Case Study Assignment Requirements:

Make sure all of the topics in the case study have been addressed.
Cite at least three references in your case study paper; this may include peer-reviewed journal articles, textbooks, or evidence-based practice websites to support the content.
All reference sources must be within 5 years.

Case Study 1: Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death

Maria is a sedentary, 68-year-old woman who is overweight. She complains that her hands and feet are always cold, and she tires quickly when cleaning the house. At her most recent visit to her doctor, her blood pressure was 184/98 mm Hg. She has edema around her ankles and legs, and her physician is concerned about an echocardiogram that indicates Maria has an enlarged heart.

Identify two reasons why Maria will have tissue ischemia. How might this lead to hypoxia?

What are the two early and reversible changes that occur to tissue cells when they are hypoxic?

What specific type of cellular adaptation has taken place in Maria’s enlarged heart?

What made you come to this conclusion?


 

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A 41-year-old male presents to the doctor’s office you work at complaining of a sore throat and headache. Upon examination, he is diagnosed with a virus that is currently prevalent in the area he works. He is told to rest and drink liquids until the virus has run its course. He becomes irate and tells you he wants an antibiotic.

How could you explain to him why he does not need an antibiotic?
What are some alternatives you could consider for a patient who demands an antibiotic?


 

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A 23-year-old woman presents to the OB-GYN office you work at. She was recently surprised to learn that she is pregnant. She estimates that she is about 8 weeks along. The woman tells you that she regularly drinks on the weekends with her friends. She asks you “Is that a problem? As long as I don’t drink very much, I can still have a drink occasionally while I’m pregnant, right?”

How would you answer her questions?
What types of abnormalities can be caused by alcohol, and how does genetics influence this?


 

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