Leon Case Study
Leon is an African American 55-year-old male. He is a non-smoker, is a nondrinker, and has a healthy weight for his height. On weekends, he coaches a youth baseball team in his community and loves to eat hot dogs and nachos with the children after they play. Leon attends a community health clinic to have a routine urinalysis and blood pressure monitoring. At his last visit, his blood pressure was 168/92 mm Hg. Although Leon was pleased that the lower number had dropped from 96 to 92, his physician was still concerned. He warned Leon about the dietary choices he was making and reminded him to limit his salt intake. He also renewed Leon’s prescription for diuretics and added an ACE inhibitor to Leon’s treatment regime.
1. Speculate how Leon’s ethnicity contributes to his hypertension. What other determinants of health contribute to the prevalence of hypertensive disease in this population?

2. What is the significance of an elevated systolic pressure, even in the absence of diastolic hypertension?

3. What is the mechanism of action of the two classes of drugs Leon was prescribed for the management of his hypertension?

NOTE TO WRITER: PLEASE DO NOT USE QUOTED MATERIAL BECAUSE IT IS CONSIDERED PLAGIARISM.

NOTE TO WRITER: Linked is a PDF copy of the book being used in the class. The book has to be one of the references. The chapters being used this lesson is Chapter 26 “Disorders of Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation” Chapter 27 “Disorders of Cardiac Function, and Heart Failure and Circulatory Shock” Chapter 28 “Disorders of Cardiac Conduction and Rhythm”

Norris, T. L., & Lalchandani, R. (2019). Porth’s pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states (10th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

file:///Users/jowusu/Downloads/Porth%E2%80%99s%20Pathophysiology_%20Concepts%20of%20Altered%20Health%20States.pdf

ALSO TO WRITER: This is a pathophysiology class so use more background information on the cellular level of the topic being discussed. Avoid cryptic information and use more of the course content and the chapter of the book which apply to the topic to complete the discussion.

FOR EXAMPLE THIS IS A QUOTE FROM THE INSTRUCTER THAT I WANT THE WRITER TO PAY ATTENTION TO WHEN COMPLETING THE DISCUSSION “As was described in the previous course announcement, there is an expectation of graduate level work in BIO PATHO. Simply using your textbook in forum and case study answers IS NOT adequate (that effort will not earn you an A in this class; and the syllabus clearly says that is inappropriate). A minimum of four sources need to be cited. Background information should ALWAYS be provided. For example, suppose the question leads you to diagnose that a person has hypertension, and you tell me all the evil consequences of hypertension and what the patient better do to reverse the many adverse effects of hypertension. Great. What is blood pressure to begin with? What is it normally? What regulates blood pressure? What can predispose someone to hypertension? What are modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for hypertension? What will hypertension do in the short-term? Long-term? This is appropriate background information. Students putting in the effort to do this by providing background content in exceptional forum post or case study answers will be rewarded during grading.”

I WILL ASLO ATTACH THE POWERPOINTS FOR THIS LESSON TO SERVES AS A GUIDE.

file:///Users/jowusu/Downloads/Porth%E2%80%99s%20Pathophysiology_%20Concepts%20of%20Altered%20Health%20States.pdf

ALSO NOTE TO WRITER: BELOW IS THE LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR THIS LESSON. LET THIS BE A GUIDE WHEN COMPLETING THIS ASSIGNMENT

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:
Welcome to Week 10. This week’s material covers cardiovascular disorders. The material in Chapters 26 and 28 cover disorders of blood flow in the systemic circulation and disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm, respectively. Chapter 27 covers two additional sets of material on disorders of disorders of cardiac function, and heart failure and circulatory shock. You should pay attention to the development of specific cardiac dysfunction in each set of material, as well as the resultant effects on the body of such disorders. Hypertension, coronary artery disease, MI, cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, and the effects of valvular dysfunction on cardiac function are covered in detail.

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:
• Hypertension
o Define hypertension and relate it to normal physiology
o Delineate the four stages of hypertension development by describing the systolic and diastolic pressures in each stage
o Define the term “volume-loading hypertension” that is caused by renal impairment
o Describe how primary aldosteronism can also lead to a volume loading hypertension
o Understand how secondary hypertension is caused by a number of pathophysiological conditions. Understand in each case how the condition results in volume-loading hypertension and vasoconstriction
o Describe the primary causative factors for primary hypertension and how lifestyle affects the development of hypertension
• Hypotension
o Describe the causative factors that lead to blood pressure decreases in orthostatic hypotension
Before attempting to complete your learning activities for this week, review the following learning materials:
• Pericardial Conditions
o Describe acute and constrictive pericarditis
o Explain the disorder pericardial effusion
• Coronary Artery Disease
o Describe the risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease
o List and describe the three types of angina that may indicate the presence of myocardial ischemia
o Explain the consequences of myocardial infarction (MI), describe how an MI is diagnosed, and list the treatment options
o Understand coronary blood flow and how coronary blood flow occlusion leads to MI
o Explain how ischemia leads to heart dysfunction and loss of cardiovascular tissue

• Cardiomyopathies and Valvular Disorders
o Describe the types of cardiomyopathies as related to atrial and ventricular size, ventricular chamber volume and cardiac output, ventricular compliance, and eventual cardiovascular event
o Compare and contrast valvular stenosis and regurgitation.
o Understand the causative factors of the valve condition and the heart outcome if left untreated
o Compare and contrast hypoeffective and hypereffective hearts
• Shock
o Describe the term circulatory shock, and delineate between non-progressive (compensated), progressive, and irreversible shock.
o Compare and contrast cardiogenic, hypovolemic, neurogenic, anaphylactic, and septic shock
o Describe multiple organ dysfunction syndrome


 

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