Preparing the Assignment
All students are required to make one post. You are not required to provide reply posts.

You can use this time to have an unstructured conversation about genetics, current population health news or other course-related ethical/legal topics of interest.

Please be sure to provide a reference for all sources cited within your post.


 

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As a master’s-prepared nurse, you are responsible for knowing basic health screenings for various populations. Choose the young, middle, or older adult population. Address the preventive health screenings for one of these subsections of the adult population based on age and sex. Include adult immunization recommendations for that adult age group. Finally, focus on one screening recommendation you included, addressing specific statistics and risks within the chosen age group that support the preventive screening recommendation.


 

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Diverse Populations, Age, and Interprofessional Health Promotion Resources

This paper is a 3- to 4-page project that analyzes interprofessional resources on one health topic (Alzheimer’s) for the adult population throughout the adult lifespan.
Topic: Alzheimer’s

What interprofessional resources exist for the topic? Also, consider using terms such as multidisciplinary and team-based care in your search related to the topic.

The adult lifespan, young, middle, and older adult, by ages and ranges in adulthood, should be addressed clearly through the condition’s epidemiology. Are there interventions that benefit the outcome? Epidemiological support and evidence-based practice guidelines should be included in the paper.

Topic Defined throughout the Adult Life Span

Define the topic.
Definition includes content related to young, middle, and older adults. (Should not include teen or childhood content.)

Epidemiology

Defines the epidemiology of the condition in the United States via three epidemiology terms numerically.
Defines by statistics per younger, middle, and older adults or by specific age ranges in adulthood.
Interventions

One clinical management guideline is explained with 2–3 criteria considerations.
Interprofessional Collaboration

Provides 4–5 specific examples of interprofessional roles and functions for the collaborative management of the condition.
Two studies are included addressing interprofessional collaboration.
Summary

Provide a summary of the general interprofessional collaborative content related to the topic and the benefit to populations. Include why it is important.

Format expectations:

Follows all assignment directions.
Introduction and conclusion are included.
Information in paragraphs and paper organized to convey the content to the reader.
Paper length paper should be 3–4 pages of content.
Follows APA in paper format, reference page, in-text citations, or headings.
Uses four or more credible peer-reviewed sources.
Resources on interprofessional collaboration should be clear and supported with evidence-based sources. Analysis of interprofessional collaboration covers all aspects of nursing. Master’s-prepared nurse educators, leaders, nurse practitioners, and all specialty nursing fields contribute to health promotion in populations across the life span. This assignment is focused on the adult. You should choose a topic that affects your area of specialty focus as it relates to health promotion and epidemiology.


 

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Immunization Presentation

Directions

For this assignment, you are creating a PowerPoint® presentation. Your presentation audience is the community.

Master’s-prepared nurse educators, leaders, nurse practitioners, and all specialty nursing fields contribute to health promotion in populations across the life span. This assignment focuses on child and adolescent immunization, health information, epidemiology, and surrounding influences. This is not a singular immunization but pediatric immunization education for a community audience.

Presentation Content and Slides:

8 content slides are required.
Each slide’s speaker notes have 2 paragraphs of content.
Each slide should have substantive content on the slide and further information in the speaker notes.

Immunity
Content on slides includes three components of information: immunity, herd immunity, and types of immunity related to vaccination.

Effects of Immunization
Content on slides includes three components of information on the effects of immunization: individual, community, and worldwide.

Trends
Content on slides includes pediatric vaccination trends, related disease trends, including statistics for conditions prevented with pediatric vaccinations.

Myths
Content on slides includes at least four documented myths about vaccinations with published information to debunk.

Pediatric Schedule
Content on slides includes the pediatric vaccination schedule of infants, children, and teens.

Legal, Ethical and Cultural Issues
Content on slide includes three components on slides: legal, ethical, and cultural considerations of pediatric vaccinations.


 

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Visit the CDC Injury Prevention and Control website about child safety and injury prevention at https://www.cdc.gov/safechild/. Additionally, review the CDC childhood injury report at https://www.cdc.gov/safechild/child_injury_data.html

For this discussion, create an outline with supportive content for implementing a simple educational program or intervention to promote health and reduce injury risk for the childhood and/or adolescent population. Focus can be for an individual, specific group, or population. Include the topic and target audience or learner characteristics. The introduction may include statistics of why the topic is important, people affected, and pertinent risk factors. Include objectives, goals, the intervention, and means you will use to evaluate the program. Show evidence-based support for the intervention.


 

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You have a client from a vulnerable population (e.g., an economically disadvantaged older adult) who needs to begin lifestyle changes with nutrition, exercise, and stress management modifications. Discuss how you would approach nutrition, exercise and/or stress management counseling. Address food aid programs that would be appropriate for referral. What exercise recommendations would be appropriate for your client? Comment on stress management factors that may need to be addressed with your choice of the vulnerable population.


 

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Assignment Details

Health Statistics and Populations

Course Outcomes addressed in this assignment:

MN505-3: Analyze health promotion and illness prevention risk factors in a multicultural context.

PC-4.3: Apply concepts of multiculturalism and diversity to become an agent of change.

Directions

Consider you are preparing for a project to evaluate multicultural impact and diversity within a health condition. Health topic of interest is domestic violence affects a specific population (e.g., older adults or women of reproductive age), or race diversity related to a condition. Locate health statistics for your selections and include national and state data. Your work may also include local county or city data if available.

Access the Unit 6 Assignment Grid. Follow the guide directions in the left-hand column of the grid for each section. Research content regarding concepts of multiculturalism and diversity and include interventions that address health disparities.

Population of Interest and Condition

Identify and define a health condition or event.
Define the population by gender, age, and health status.
Identify cultural aspects in the literature review.
Search Process

Provide a detailed summary of the search process and three components of health sources used in the project.
Include names of journals, organizations, and agencies for health statistics.
Include state and national resources.
Include search criteria such as keywords and date ranges of sources.
Health Information

Document relevant health information obtained from the search, including four components of the topic: clinical health information on the topic, associated risk factors, significant statistics, local and national including epidemiological trends are present as they relate to change, in the US and global settings
Research Findings

Demonstrate disparities statistically.
Content addresses two evidence-based clinical interventions that are designed to reduce the specific disparities in the examined population.
Include two multicultural aspects of these interventions.
In the literature application, demonstrate concepts of multiculturalism and diversity to become an agent of change.
Include two clinical guidelines or evidence-based management or treatment of the overall health topic to support your stance.
Summary

You will provide a summation of your review. Examples of concepts may include personal beliefs and values, the benefits of diverse perspectives, the importance of tolerance, etc. Provide examples of how to bridge cultural differences and build effective relationships for improved health outcomes on the topic.

Format expectations

Follows all assignment directions.
Information is inputted in the provided grid.
Information within sections is organized to convey the content to the reader.
Content grid should be 3–4 pages of information.
May be single-spaced. Bulleting may be used. Contains less than two APA errors in paper format, reference page, in-text citations, or headings.
Includes a title page and reference page.
Uses six or more credible peer-reviewed sources.
Carefully consider the directions in each section of the table. There should be substantive information in the last two sections particularly. Do not alter the left-hand column.

Master’s-prepared nurse educators, leaders, nurse practitioners, and all specialty nursing fields contribute to health promotion in populations across the life span. This assignment focuses on analyzing epidemiological and health information, including illness prevention, risk factors disparities, and intervention. Students should be able to integrate these concepts in a multicultural context to their specialty focus related to health promotion and epidemiology.


 

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Define the core functions of epidemiology. Select one of the epidemiologic core functions and explain how the core function might be demonstrated in clinical practice by a master’s-prepared registered nurse.


 

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Explain how epidemiological studies impact knowledge of diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical treatment. Be sure to use vocabulary that demonstrates your understanding of epidemiological terms.


 

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Read the required reading. Review the Determinants of Health website and view the short video and content.

Healthy People content site: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/Determinants-of-Health

Video Link at site: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Yb3B75eqbo

For this discussion, you will identify and define determinants of health for an at-risk individual or family, including social, environmental, and global factors as applicable. How you approach the discussion is your choice. You may choose a condition or topic first and then elaborate from there while including the population characteristics and health determinants. Alternatively, you may choose to define a specific population, such as rural Appalachian single mothers, and then address risks and the determinants of health.


 

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Community Needs and Health Screening Initiative

Directions

For this assignment, you will pick one recommended screening from the United States Preventive Task Force A and B Recommendations.

An initiative is a project or event, so something in the community is ideal; workplace location for employees is also fine. Please include the following suggested level one headings, so content is clear and easily identified.

Theory or Conceptual Model

Identify and describe a health promotion program theory or conceptual model.
Explain how the model or theory is applicable to the initiative.
Population Screening Purpose

Identify the screening topic as an A or B preventive screening from the USPSTF.
Include two components of topic-related community statistics numerically (e.g., mortality, prevalence).
Describe target population characteristics, including age and sex or risk factor, and match the guidelines.
Clarify the county and or neighborhood of the population.
Provide descriptions on the local population to be screened, including three components: number of persons in the county possibly affected based on sex, age, and racial diversity of the county or state.
Include current rates of screening or factors that would impact the need for screening.
Location/Setting

Provide details of the community or workplace event, including three components: type of area or building, time, and day (e.g., Monroe County Senior Center at 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. 4/20/21).
Include reasoning and explanation of appropriateness.
Screening Activity

The screening activity plan meets the preventive guidelines process, is descriptive, and includes:

Education component description
Measures tested
Evidence the tests are aligned with guideline recommendations
Demonstrates possible positive measure, and normal and abnormal ranges
Follow up and referral content process
Three clear and measurable outcome goals
Explanation of how each outcome is affected by the activity
Cost

Provides a detailed cost analysis to perform screening in table form and includes (but is not limited to) the six following line items:

Testing instrument costs with source for pricing
Staff costs as appropriate for screening
Rental cost estimate
Simple supply costs
Any attendee cost
Total
You may use volunteer staff but not donations of items. Cost analysis for feasibility needs to be demonstrated. Cost analysis total and summary statement should be included.

Provide a summary of your screening, general benefit to the community, and why it is important. A person should be able to read your paper and understand what you are screening, where, when, the costs, and how it is supported in the guideline. Ideally, a person would be able to duplicate your screening initiative based on the clarity you present.

Format expectations:

Follow all assignment directions.
Include an introduction and conclusion.
Information in paragraphs and paper organized to convey the content to the reader.
Paper length paper should be 3–4 pages of content.
Follows APA in paper format, reference page, in-text citations, or headings.
Use four or more credible peer-reviewed sources.
Master’s-prepared nurse educators, leaders, nurse practitioners, and all specialty nursing fields contribute to health promotion in populations across the life span. This assignment is focused on preventive screening applications in the community, workplace, or school settings. You should be able to apply this knowledge to their specialty focus as it relates to health promotion and epidemiology.


 

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Topic: Levels of Prevention
Discuss the following in your post:
Create three scenarios where you would apply each of the three levels of prevention.
Three levels of prevention: (primary, secondary, and tertiary)


 

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Discuss risks and how epidemiological studies impact interventions to reduce risks. Include some types of studies and specific risk examples in your response. How does this apply to evidence-based medicine?


 

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For the master’s-prepared nurse, knowledge of epidemiology and its application to preventive screening guidelines is important in many clinical areas: administrative, education, and nurse practitioner fields. Consider that you are working in a clinic and need to order preventive screening for a patient for BREAST CANCER. (While this is a preventative measure, it also can be a diagnostic tool in other circumstances. For this assignment, the screening is a secondary prevention measure.)

Your screening methodology must come from the United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines.https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Name/uspstf-a-and-b-recommendations/

Include the condition and type of screening are both identified and defined. Screening choice is one from the assignment directions.
Epidemiology of Condition

Include a correct definition of the condition and define the epidemiology of the condition in the United States, via three statistical terms. Include the correct mortality and related morbidity statistics in numerical format and address trends using terms such as increasing, larger or less, related disparities, and population rate comparison (race, sex, age, etc.).
Methodology

Incorporate the USPSTF guideline development methodology process into the methodology section of the paper.
Discuss the population for the screening guideline using age, sex or related characteristic and includes information on two risk factors addressed in the guideline methodology.
Justify the screening based on these risks using statistical rationale.
Explain and support the screening measures.
Guideline

Summarize the USPSTF guideline recommendation and include population characteristics, screening type, and interval.
Include most current recommendations.
Critical Analysis

Conduct a literature review of the guideline’s support and may include alternative studies found in more recent literature supporting or offering alternative views.
Cite four studies in the analysis.
Provide a summary conclusion of the screening guideline, general benefit to the individual, and why it is important.

Format expectations:

Follows all assignment directions.
Introduction and conclusion are included.
Information in paragraphs and paper organized to convey the content to the reader.
Paper length paper should be 3–4 pages of content.
Follows APA in paper format, reference page, in-text citations, or headings.
Uses four or more credible peer-reviewed sources.


 

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Discuss epidemiology as the scientific basis for clinical medicine and guideline development. Explain some types of data, performance measurements, and possible reasons for variations in data. Next, share a bit of information or statistics you learn from reviewing the National Center for Health Statistics site.


 

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  • Edward Truelove

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Introduction

This assignment will identify and explain what epidemiology is and describe how epidemiologists collect and analyse specific data. It will then identify a number of aspects of the science and then look a disease and see how epidemiologist’s data was used to influence health promotion.

What is Epidemiology?

Epidemiology is the ‘science concerned with the study of the factors determining and influencing the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health-related events and their causes in a defined human population. Also, the sum of knowledge gained in such a study’.

There are two main types of Epidemiology. The first one is descriptive which describes the occurrence of the disease according to people, place and time and the second is analytic which determines the causation, risk factors for health, disease and association.

Descriptive epidemiology describes and investigates the scale of the problem. This is the amount of people that have developed or caught the disease over a specified period. e.g. in 2004 there were 44,659 cases of newly diagnosed breast cancer in the UK. From this epidemiologists would look at the prevalence, the number of people that have the disease or condition at any particular time. e.g. the number of people who are regular smokers within a specified time period. The next factor is to look at how the condition is spread. This is done by analysing categories such as age, gender, socioeconomic class and ethnicity e.g. women from lower social classes are much more likely to smoke than women in higher social classes.

Examples of questions asked to collect this data are as follows:

  • What are the health problems?
  • How many people are affected?
  • Who is affected?
  • Which communities are affected and why?
  • What are the trends?

Answers to these questions can indicate if primary prevention is possible and it can show the seriousness of the problem and how individuals and communities may be affected.

Analytical epidemiology aims to answer the question, why did it happen? This is done by identifying and determining the causes and risk factors for health and disease.

Comparisons have to be made between groups with or without the disease and between groups exposed and not exposed to a possible causal factor.

Causation can show if there is a link from a certain disease to environmental influences, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. To find the cause, epidemiologists can use inferential statistics to draw inferences about apopulationfrom arandom sample. From analysing the results and assessing the risks, a link between events and contributory factors can be draw and this can vary from negligible to high.

Assessing the needs and analysing the data

The first step in planning health promotion is to assess the needs and this consists of two elements. Firstly are the health service needs, which are determined from health data such as occurrence, frequency, mortality and morbidity. Secondly is the community determined needs covering issues that individuals and communities have brought to the attention of the local authority, politicians and letters etc. Sometimes these two elements overlap but it is important to identify which are priorities for communities.

Health data is analysed according to who has been affected and this shows which communities are affected the most so that resources can be allocated. From this information about prevention begin.

Prevention

Primary prevention consists of trying to keep people healthy and free from disease such as immunization and encouragement of healthy lifestyles. Secondary prevention tries to identify the disease and persuade people to go for treatment at the earliest opportunity. Examples could be a cough that could lead to tuberculosis or a fever that could lead to influenza. In some conditions once the disease has developed it can often be too late, so one of the key roles of health promotion is to encourage screening i.e. breast cancer. Tertiary prevention involves actions if the disease has become very serious. This is to promote recovery and focus on rehabilitation to help speed the recovery. An example of primary prevention would be lung cancer as it is know what causes it, but it is not suitable for breast cancer as the causes are not yet known. Prevention can only take place if the causes can be established.

Causes

Epidemiologists need to establish causes and to look at many factors such as the environment, society and individuals. They also need to find out what causes the cause as there can be a whole chain of causal factors triggering a chain of events.

These study designs are used for finding out possible causes, although they do not prove causal relationships as they just look at associations.

There are two types of analytical study designs. The first is group one which are used for finding out possible causes. Ecological studies compare studies of a particular disease in different communities to try to ascertain the cause.

Cross-sectional studies sample a section of society at one particular time to see if there are common characteristics between people. Case control studies compare a sample of people with a disease to a sample without and a conclusion can be drawn to see if characteristics are more likely to be found in people with the disease.

Group two analytical studies are stronger design studies which are used to provide evidence for causal relationships. Cohort studies, also known as prospective or longitudinal studies are when a large sample of the population is followed over a long period of time to monitor their lifestyle and exposure to the risks. From this, the incidence of the disease can be followed to look for causal risks. Examples of this are following a sample of the population for fifty years to see if there is a link between smoking and lung cancer. Intervention study involves exposing a random selection of people to a health promotion trial to find out if the if intervention has health benefits and then to compare the results to a group of people who have not. Results can be analysed to establish if there are key variable such as income, age, distribution, etc. Relative or attributable risk provides a measure of the strength of a causal relationship. Decisions can be made from this as to how many lives could be saved if the causal factor was removed. Epidemiologists have also to work out which are confounding factors, ones that can appear to be associated with a disease but are not a causal.

From all the information and studies undertaken there has to be a systematic review to identify which studies have strong conclusions. From the evidence, reasons can be worked out for showing the causes of health problems and disease and an action plan for health promotion can be set out.

Epidemiology is an essential key discipline in health promotion and unless the specific factors that cause a health problem are identified, action cannot be taken to prevent it and promote health.

Swine flu and Epidemiology

What are the health problems?

In the case of swine flu, dry cough, sore throat, headache and fatigue are the most common associated symptoms. Typically patients will have a fever over 38C. Most people recover in a week without any specific treatment.

How many are affected

In swine flu the number of cases in the UK rose quickly after the first established cases in Scotland. By May 312009, there were 252 confirmed cases in the UK.Seventy of these had been to Mexico or the US seven days prior to infection, and 178 reported that they had not been abroad.

Who is affected?

In the case of swine flu, in the first months of its outbreak in the UK, it mostly affected young people, and was most commonly spread through contact at schools. These findingsare based on an analysis ofthe first 252 cases of the disease diagnosed in the UK after news of the virus broke

What are the trends?

Of the 168 who contracted the infection it was established the likely place of viral transmission: 60% had been acquired in school; 25% from a household environment;

8% in the community; 1% (two cases) acquired in the workplace; Less than 1% (one case) in a healthcare environment; 5% acquired elsewhere. (nhs.uk)

Which communities are affected and why?

People of all genders and ages, including infants and the elderly were developing the disease equally. Due to a larger proportion of younger people travelling abroad and being in contact with younger people, the average age of the first 252 infected people was 20 years. Of the 178 first cases in the UK, 22% reported contact with someone who had developed the infection overseas (secondary infection) and 70% reported contact with a secondary case. 7% were not aware that they had contacted anyone (nhs.uk)

Influence on health promotion

The disease was first identified in Mexico in April 2009 and quickly spread round the globe. Initially the HNS had to make the public aware of the health problems through the media and do everything to contain the disease such as closing schools. After a while it was classed as a pandemic and moved from a containment status to treatment status. Generally the disease was fairly mild and was usually more serious in patients with other health problems. Part of the health promotion campaign was to offer antiviral medicines, Tamiflu or Relenza.

Another step was to identify who and which communities are affected, and those people that are in high risk groups, as they are more likely to develop to complications. Vulnerable people are those who have lung disease, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, neurological disease and diabetes. Also at risk are people who have had drug treatment, pregnant women, people over 65 and children under five.

A health promotion campaign through the Television and media was used to make these particular groups aware of the potential risks. Swine flu vaccination began in October 2009

The NHS issued information to the public to stop the disease spreading such as good respiratory and hand hygiene i.e. sneezing into a tissue and putting it a bin and to wash your hands and work surfaces at home regularly. Other public health information includes a National Pandemic Flu website and telephone number for the public to call for any information. The public were asked to call their GP if they had flu like symptoms and particularly if they had a serious condition that weakens your immune system, if they are pregnant, have a sick child under one or if the condition suddenly gets worse. The Service assesses the symptoms and if required will provide authorisation to collect antiviral medicine.

Carers also have been identified as at risk as they come into contact with the most vulnerable in the community and steps have been taken in the second phase of vaccination to protected them from the risk of infection

Conclusion

The science of epidemiology involves elements of biology, social sciences and ecology and it is therefore it is a bio-social-environmental science focusing on disease in populations.

Epidemiology is a key discipline in Health Promotion as is analyses specific factors of a disease. From this data action can be taken to prevent the disease spreading and promote health i.e. smoking and lung cancer, asbestos and cancer, alcohol and liver disease. However, mistakes can be made as some diseases such as heart disease have many influential factors including diet, exercise, smoking, blood pressure and genetic history. Epidemiology is a population science and investigations of health problems in populations have been very important for public health. Its techniques in examining the disease patterns between populations have been widely applied and there is no consensus of the best means to measure health. As epidemiology is a study of populations it does not tailor health promotion needs for the individual and quite often complicated data and government health warnings such ‘eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day’ can be largely ignored by a sceptical public, and therefore destructive activities still persist.

This report has identified what epidemiology is and explained how epidemiologists assess the spread of illness and analyse data collected. It has also listed aspects of epidemiology and stated how they have an influence on health promotion.

References

  • Cancer Research (2009) [Online], Available at: http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/lung/incidence/index.htm 1 ( (Accessed 22 Nov 2009)
  • Hubley, H. and Copeman, J. (2008) Practical Health Promotion, Polity Press: Cambridge.
  • Naidoo, J. and Wills, J. (2009) Foundations for Health Promotion, 3rd Edn, Bailliere Tindall: London.
  • Naidoo, J. and Wills, J. (2008) Public Health and Health Promotion, 2nd Edn, Bailliere Tindall: London.
  • NHS (2009), [Online], Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/news/2009/07July/Pages/Swinefluearlyepidemiology.aspx 1 (Accessed 2 Dec 2009)
  • NHS (2009), [Online], Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pandemic-flu/Pages/Introduction.aspx?WT.srch=1 (Accessed 2 Dec 2009)


 

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letter time new roman #12

first page school name
second page dedication
third introduction
key word
definitions
hypothesis (null, complex and simple)
variable depend and independent
problem formulation (Host, enviroment, Agent)
macro vision of the OMS CDC with the investigation conducted

objective of the investigation (general and specific)
justification
delimitation
type of investigation
methodology
study selected
results
conclusion
protocol

Begin chosen health issue and investigation . Next, provide an annotated investigation based upon these five sources. For each source in your annotated investigation, you would compared. The first paragraph will be to summarize the information in your own words. In the second paragraph, you will analyze/critique the source by examining strengths and weaknesses specific to application of the investigation. You may answer questions such as the following: What did the study do particularly well? What areas were not addressed adequately?


 

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