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look for Murdaugh, C., Parsons, M.A. and Pender, N. (2019). Health Promotion in Nursing Practice
Read Chapter 10 “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Health Promotion” found in: Murdaugh, C., Parsons, M.A. and Pender, N., (2019) Health Promotion in Nursing Practice
Attached articles
CDC “Building our understanding: key concepts of evaluation-what it is and how you can do it” www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/…/tools/pdf/eval_planning.pdf ‎
Building Our Understanding: Key Concepts of Evaluation (includes formative and summative evaluation)
The Goals of Evaluation
The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide "useful feedback" to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies. Most often, feedback is perceived as "useful" if it aids in decision-making. But the relationship between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one — studies that seem critical sometimes fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise. Despite this, there is broad consensus that the major goal of evaluation should be to influence decision-making or policy formulation through the provision of empirically-driven feedback.

From The Goals of Evaluation at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.php (Links to an external site.)
The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide "useful feedback" to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies. Most often, feedback is perceived as "useful" if it aids in decision-making. But the relationship between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one — studies that seem critical sometimes fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise. Despite this, there is broad consensus that the major goal of evaluation should be to influence decision-making or policy formulation through the provision of empirically-driven feedback.

There are many different types of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. Perhaps the most important basic distinction in evaluation types is that between formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated — they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on. Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object — they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object.

Formative evaluation includes several evaluation types:
needs assessment determines who needs the program, how great the need is, and what might work to meet the need
evaluability assessment determines whether an evaluation is feasible and how stakeholders can help shape its usefulness
structured conceptualization helps stakeholders define the program or technology, the target population, and the possible outcomes
implementation evaluation monitors the fidelity of the program or technology delivery
process evaluation investigates the process of delivering the program or technology, including alternative delivery procedures
​

Summative evaluation can also be subdivided:
outcome evaluations investigate whether the program or technology caused demonstrable effects on specifically defined target outcomes
impact evaluation is broader and assesses the overall or net effects — intended or unintended — of the program or technology as a whole
cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their dollar costs and values
secondary analysis reexamines existing data to address new questions or use methods not previously employed
meta-analysis integrates the outcome estimates from multiple studies to arrive at an overall or summary judgement on an evaluation question​

Evaluation Questions and Methods
Evaluators ask many different kinds of questions and use a variety of methods to address them. These are considered within the framework of formative and summative evaluation as presented above.
In formative research the major questions and methodologies are:
What is the definition and scope of the problem or issue, or what’s the question?
Formulating and conceptualizing methods might be used including brainstorming, focus groups, nominal group techniques, Delphi methods, brainwriting, stakeholder analysis, synectics, lateral thinking, input-output analysis, and concept mapping
Where is the problem and how big or serious is it?
The most common method used here is "needs assessment" which can include: analysis of existing data sources, and the use of sample surveys, interviews of constituent populations, qualitative research, expert testimony, and focus groups.

How should the program or technology be delivered to address the problem?
Some of the methods already listed apply here, as do detailing methodologies like simulation techniques, or multivariate methods like multiattribute utility theory or exploratory causal modeling; decision-making methods; and project planning and implementation methods like flow charting, PERT/CPM, and project scheduling.

How well is the program or technology delivered?
Qualitative and quantitative monitoring techniques, the use of management information systems, and implementation assessment would be appropriate methodologies here.

The questions and methods addressed under summative evaluation include:
What type of evaluation is feasible?
Evaluability assessment can be used here, as well as standard approaches for selecting an appropriate evaluation design.

What was the effectiveness of the program or technology?
One would choose from observational and correlational methods for demonstrating whether desired effects occurred, and quasi-experimental and experimental designs for determining whether observed effects can reasonably be attributed to the intervention and not to other sources.

What is the net impact of the program?
Econometric methods for assessing cost effectiveness and cost/benefits would apply here, along with qualitative methods that enable us to summarize the full range of intended and unintended impacts.
Clearly, this introduction is not meant to be exhaustive. Each of these methods, and the many not mentioned, is supported by the extensive methodological research literature.


 

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