Responses to classmates must consist of at least 350 words (not including the greeting and the references), do NOT repeat the same thing your classmate is saying, try to add something of value like a resource, educational information to give to patients, possible bad outcomes associated with the medicines discussed in the case, try to include a sample case you’ve seen at work and discuss how you feel about how that case was handled. Try to use supportive information such as current Tx guidelines, current research related to the treatment, anything that will enhance learning in the online classroom.

Nicotine use in adolescents

Theories to Compare: Health Belief Model, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Cognitive Theory

Selected theory: Health Belief Model

Why: To begin, I should first briefly break down each theory and describe how they function and what angle they come in at to target a health behavior. The Transtheoretical Model, also known as the Stages of Change Model, was developed in the late 1970s and evaluates the experiences of people breaking a bad health or lifestyle choice or habit. This theory proposes that people are at different stages of readiness to change their health behavior and it is “set up” in a circular fashion, not linear (LaMorte, 2019). This is because people can regress in their habits and move forward again towards a changed behavior. The stages of this model are Precontemplation, where people are unaware of their problematic behavior and its consequences, they do not yet see the pros of changing their behavior. Next is contemplation, where one intends to make healthier choices in the future and recognize that their current habit is negative for them. Determination is when people are ready to take action soon. Action is when they are changing their behavior and intend to keep doing so. This can mean they modify their current habit or replace it with a new healthy/healthier one (LaMorte, 2019). Maintenance is when the positive behavior is sustained, and they intend to maintain this good behavior and they are making efforts to prevent relapse. Termination is when the unhealthy behavior is out the window and the person has no intention of going back. This model I believe is great when quitting a bad habit, like substance abuse or self-harm. I think a limitation to this study is that social context is not considered enough, such as what environmental factors can the person not control. This can be socioeconomic status, neighborhood, cultural norms, and support groups.

Next, the Social Cognitive Theory is a design that describes the influence of individual experiences, the actions of others, and environmental factors on individual health behaviors. It focuses on socially supporting expectations and other reinforcements to achieve behavior change. Expectations are set for the person to assign value to the outcome and regulating and monitoring individual behavior to maintain own accountability (LaMorte, 2019). Observing and modeling others displaying the correct behavior is part of the model and reenforcing the good behavior with incentives to encourage change.

The Health Belief Model is a model that explains and predicts individual changes in health behaviors and focuses on individuals’ beliefs about health conditions, which predict individual health-related behaviors (Rural Health Information Hub, 2018). Key factors that influence health behaviors are the person’s perceived threat of their behavior on their health, the consequence of the behavior, benefits of the behavior, and perceived barriers to actions and their confidence to succeed in changing behaviors.

I think the Health Belief Model is the best approach to tackle adolescent nicotine addiction, whether it be from cigarettes or vapes, because part of the model requires a pro and con approach by conveying to the population the health issues and risks related to their use. The population can be educated at school on social media, by family, and through many health campaigns like the Truth campaign, to reach the target audience and deliver the risks and consequences in a clear and unambiguous fashion to understand perceived severity. The model also aids in IDing barriers to action, which many times in this population are peer pressure and social standing. But by demonstrating actions and skill development activities to enhance self-efficacy to increase their chances of successful avoidance of nicotine use.

LaMorte, W. (2019, September 9). Behavioral change models. The Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved March 9, 2022, from

LaMorte, W. (2019, September 9). Behavioral change models. The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change). Retrieved March 9, 2022, from

Rural Health Information Hub. (2018, April 30). The health belief model – rural health promotion and disease prevention toolkit. The Health Belief Model – Rural Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Toolkit. Retrieved March 9, 2022, from




For order inquiries     +1 (518) 291 4128

Open chat
You can now contact our live agent via Whatsapp! via +1 408 800-3377

You will get plagiarism free custom written paper ready for submission to your Blackboard.