The research design was a quantitative, cross-sectional study which evaluated the survey data from 10,305 female registered hospital nurses who participated in the Korea Nurses’ Health Study. The hypothesis of this study was as follows: Elevated stress is associated with high burnout and the association between stress and burnout is mediated through STS (secondary traumatic stress) and CS (compassion satisfaction).
To identify factors associated with burnout independent t tests, ANOVAs, and Bonferroni multiple comparisons were performed according to the characteristics of the variables. To identify the correlation between stress, STS, CS, and burnout, Pearson correlations were performed (Lee et al, 2021).
The researcher used independent t test to test the relationship between marital status and burn out level and the p value was significant (t = 21.13, p < .001) which means never-married nurses experienced higher burnout, with a score of 27.9 (SD = 5.0). The overtime work (t = − 11.17, p < .001), rotational night shifts (t = − 16.66, p < .001), and lower annual income (t = 10.58, p < .001), burnout scores were relatively higher.
I do believe that it was correct independent t test he tested one independent, categorical variable that has two levels/groups (marital status, overtime yes or no, rotational shifts yes or no, lower annual income) and one continuous dependent variable (burnout level). The researcher did not display the data and he did not calculate the effect size (Frankfort-Nachmias et al, 2020).
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2020). Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Lee, H., Baek, W., Lim, A., Lee, D., Pang, Y., & Kim, O. (2021). Secondary traumatic stress and compassion satisfaction mediate the association between stress and burnout among Korean hospital nurses: a cross-sectional study. BMC nursing, 20(1

Week 6 Initial Post
In a recent study, Owens et al. (2020) conducted a quasi-experimental study with a single group pre/posttest design. The authors state the purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of a short, enduring, practical, situation adaptable, and sustainable mindfulness-based interventions (MBI). This study tests whether breathing mindfully with a readily accessible 3-minute breathing exercise, 3 times per day, for a period of 4 weeks, will positively affect compassion fatigue (CF) in acute care nurses (Owens et al., 2020, p. 276). The authors discussed collecting data before the start of the study (pre-intervention) and again four weeks post-intervention. The authors used the Professional Quality of Life Test (ProQOL) version 5 instrument to collect data on CF, STS, BO and CF. They also collected data on the clinical role, age, race/ethnicity, and years of practicing as an RN of the participants at the start of the study. The final sample size was 32 (started with 45 nurses) and the participants were acute nurses and members or affiliates of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) (Owens, et al., 2020).
Owens et al. (2020) reported using paired-samples t-tests to examine changes pre-and post-intervention of the study outcomes of compassion satisfaction (CS), burnout (BO), and secondary traumatic stress (STS), as components of compassion fatigue. The intervention was a 3-minute breathing exercise with set time frames as described earlier in the discussion. The 3-minute breathing was prescribed 3 x a day for four weeks. All participants were educated on this specific MBI.
The t-test is a common parametric test used to measure differences between group sample means. The independent t-test is used to explore differences between the means of two independent sample groups (Walden University, 2016m). The paired or dependent t-test is used to explore differences between two paired or matched groups or a comparison of two measurements in the same group (Gray & Grove, 2021). An example of a paired sample t-test use is comparing scores of the same group of people (participants) who take the same pre-and post-test after an intervention (Wagner, 2020; Walden University, 2016m).
The paired t-test in this study is appropriate. The researchers did display the results clearly in two separate tables. They did not discuss effect size. The authors report improved scores in the BO and STS levels (components of CF). The authors discussed the decreased scores as significant because the scores move from average to low levels of BO and STS as measured by the survey instrument that is reliable and valid (Owen et al., 2020, p. 278). They report a statistically significant result related to the measures of BO and STS. The authors discuss that retention of 71% and partial adherence to the intervention also support the results. They discuss this study had better retention than previous studies and partial adherence (mindful breathing 2 times a day vs 3 for example) to the intervention. The authors state these findings are significant and state these additional findings support the post-intervention scores (and the benefit of the intervention). The researchers discuss the findings as both statistically significant and clinically significant (Owen et al., 2020). Addressing both the statistical and clinical significance supported the final study results.

Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2021). Burns & Grove’s the practice of nursing research:

Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

Owens, R. A., Alfes, C., Evans, S., Wyka, K., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2020). An Exploratory Study of a 3-Minute Mindfulness Intervention on Compassion Fatigue in Nurses. Holistic Nursing Practice, 34(5), 274–281.
Wagner, III, W. E. (2020). Using IBM® SPSS® statistics for research methods and social

science statistics (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Walden University, LLC. (Producer). (2016m). The t-test for related samples [Video
file]. Baltimore, MD: Author




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