***This assignment is connected to the second paper that was written. I have included the media piece that needs to be used again. There are to be a minimum of 3 scholarly or academic peer-reviewed journal articles about the topic*** I have also included the second assignment as reference. Thank you.

Write a 4-6 page analysis of a current problem or issue in health care, including a proposed solution and possible ethical implications.

Introduction
In your health care career, you will be confronted with many problems that demand a solution. By using research skills, you can learn what others are doing and saying about similar problems. Then, you can analyze the problem and the people and systems it affects. You can also examine potential solutions and their ramifications. This assessment allows you to practice this approach with a real-world problem.

Instructions
Note: The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. At a minimum, be sure to address each point. In addition, you are encouraged to review the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

Describe the health care problem or issue you selected for use in Assessment 2 (from the Assessment Topic Areas media piece) and provide details about it.
Explore your chosen topic. For this, you should use the first four steps of the Socratic Problem-Solving Approach to aid your critical thinking. This approach was introduced in Assessment 2.
Identify possible causes for the problem or issue.
Use scholarly information to describe and explain the health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it.
Identify at least three scholarly or academic peer-reviewed journal articles about the topic.
You may find the How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles? library guide helpful in locating appropriate references.
You may use articles you found while working on Assessment 2 or you may search the Capella library for other articles.
You may find the applicable Undergraduate Library Research Guide helpful in your search.
Review the Think Critically About Source Quality to help you complete the following:
Assess the credibility of the information sources.
Assess the relevance of the information sources.
Analyze the health care problem or issue.
Describe the setting or context for the problem or issue.
Describe why the problem or issue is important to you.
Identify groups of people affected by the problem or issue.
Provide examples that support your analysis of the problem or issue.
Discuss potential solutions for the health care problem or issue.
Describe what would be required to implement a solution.
Describe potential consequences of ignoring the problem or issue.
Provide the pros and cons for one of the solutions you are proposing.
Explain the ethical principles (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if potential solution was implemented.
Describe what would be necessary to implement the proposed solution.
Explain the ethical principles that need to be considered (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if the potential solution was implemented.
Provide examples from the literature to support the points you are making.
Example Assessment: You may use the following to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like:

Assessment 3 Example [PDF].
Additional Requirements
Your assessment should also meet the following requirements:

Length: 4–6 typed, double-spaced pages, not including the title page and reference page.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
APA tutorial: Use the APA Style Paper Tutorial [DOCX] for guidance.
Written communication: Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
Using outside sources: Integrate information from outside sources into academic writing by appropriately quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing, following APA style.
References: Integrate information from outside sources to include at least three scholarly or academic peer-reviewed journal articles and three in-text citations within the paper.
APA format: Follow current APA guidelines for in-text citations of outside sources in the body of your paper and also on the reference page.
Organize your paper using the following structure and headings:

Title page. A separate page.
Introduction. A brief one-paragraph statement about the purpose of the paper.
Elements of the problem/issue. Identify the elements of the problem or issue or question.
Analysis. Analyze, define, and frame the problem or issue.
Considering options. Consider solutions, responses, or answers.
Solution. Choose a solution, response, or answer.
Ethical implications. Ethical implications of implementing the solution.
Implementation. Implementation of the potential solution.
Conclusion. One paragraph.
Competencies Measured:
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Apply information literacy and library research skills to obtain scholarly information in the field of health care.
Use scholarly information to describe and explain a health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it.
Competency 2: Apply scholarly information through critical thinking to solve problems in the field of health care.
Analyze a health care problem or issue by describing the context, explaining why it is important and identifying populations affected by it.
Discuss potential solutions for a health care problem or issue and describe what would be required to implement a solution.
Competency 3: Apply ethical principles and academic standards to the study of health care.
Explain the ethical principles (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if potential solution was implemented
Competency 4: Write for a specific audience, in appropriate tone and style, in accordance with Capella’s writing standards.
Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
Write following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references.

Media Piece

Limited Access to Healthcare
Short Description:
Consumers face barriers to healthcare access for assorted reasons. For example: due to geographic location, provider availability, transportation issues and mobility.

Potential Intervention Approaches:
– Healthcare information online
– Telemedicine
– In–home healthcare services
Keywords for Articles:
online health information seeking, health care access, health information systems, consumer health information, chronic disease, health information search, health seeking behavior, rural nursing

References:
Bhandari, N. (2014). Seeking health information online: does limited healthcare access matter? Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA (1067-5027), 21 (6), p. 1113. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.library.capella.edu/pmc/articles/PMC4215038/

Lee, K., Hoti, K., Hughes, J. D., & Emmerton, L. (2014). Dr Google and the Consumer: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Navigational Needs and Online Health Information-Seeking Behaviors of Consumers with Chronic Health Conditions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(12), e262. http://doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.2196/jmir.3706

Ware, P., Bartlett, S. J., Paré, G., Symeonidis, I., Tannenbaum, C., Bartlett, G., … Ahmed, S. (2017). Using eHealth Technologies: Interests, Preferences, and Concerns of Older Adults. Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 6(1), e3. http://doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.2196/ijmr.4447

Pratt, D. (2015). Telehealth and telemedicine. Albany Law Journal of Science & Technology. (1059-4280), 25 (3), p. 495. http://www.lexisnexis.com.library.capella.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/?shr=t&csi=148364&sr=TITLE(%22Telehealth+telemedicine+in+2015%22)+and+date+is+2015

Assignment 2
Limited Access to Healthcare

Limited access to healthcare is a significant public health problem in the US. This has
resulted in increasing disparity in healthcare and high rates of morbidity and mortality (Oh et al.,
2020). A person’s ability to access adequate healthcare has a profound effect on their overall health
and can result in higher morbidity and mortality rates. One of the significant barriers to healthcare
access in the US is the geographic issue. Rural populations with limited healthcare resources and
providers are often forced to travel long distances to access care. Another significant barrier is the
shortage of health professionals. The shortage of health workers has contributed to a shortage of
healthcare services and an increase in underserved populations, especially in rural areas and low-
income communities where private providers of healthcare services have not penetrated.

Another significant barrier is the lack of transport. Studies indicate that approximately 3.6
million Americans fail to receive medical care and another 1 million children miss medical
appointments due to transportation every year (Oh et al., 2020). Transportation-related barriers
include costs and inadequate infrastructure. The financial constraint also significantly impair
access to healthcare. This is primarily due to the increasing prices of pharmaceutical products and
medical services. Research indicates that in 2019 approximately 8.3 percent of adults failed to
obtain needed medical care due to cost.

Everyone should have access to adequate healthcare. Although America does not have a
universal healthcare system, a lot can still be done to improve access to healthcare. One of the
strategies that can help address the issue is the adoption of telemedicine.

Identifying Peer-Reviewed Articles

The peer-reviewed articles relevant to the study topic were obtained from online databases
specializing in medical and nursing research studies. They were obtained from PubMed and
EMBASE. The search terms used were single words and phrases entailing words joined with
Boolean operators. These include health disparity, America and poor healthcare access,
telemedicine and improvement in healthcare access. In addition, several criteria were used to refine
the search and narrow down the articles. The criteria included peer-reviewed full-text articles
published within the last five years and conducted by more than one researcher.

Assessing the Credibility of Peer-Reviews Articles

I used several criteria to assess the credibility of the selected articles. The criteria included
peer-reviewed articles, conducted by more than one researcher with a medical background,
published within the past five, providing complete access, and organized into an introduction,
methodology, findings, and conclusion.

Annotated Bibliography

Coombs, N. C., Meriwether, W. E., Caringi, J., & Newcomer, S. R. (2021). Barriers to
healthcare access among US adults with mental health challenges: A population-based
study. SSM-Population Health, 15, 100847.

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of barriers to healthcare access
among U.S. adults. Access to healthcare services has a considerable impact on overall health at all
stages of life. When healthcare services are sufficiently utilized, earlier detection and diagnosis of
health problems is possible, allowing for early treatment which is less costly. It also reduces the
disparity in healthcare. The researchers conducted a cross-sectional study using the National
Health Interview Survey data. Various potential barriers to healthcare were identified and
quantified. Most participants reported affordability and geographical distance as the most
significant barriers to healthcare. The article concludes by emphasizing continued monitoring of
healthcare access disparities among persons with mental illnesses, focusing on social and
environmental factors. The article was selected because it’s relevant to the current study topic and
offers important data that healthcare providers can apply to implement interventions to reduce
disparity in access to healthcare.

Kervin, L., Teo, K., Churchill, R., Riadi, I., & Cosco, T. D. (2021). Barriers in health and
social care access and navigation for elder orphans: a scoping review protocol. BMJ
open, 11(5), e043876.

The purpose of this paper was to identify the barriers and facilitators of access to social and
health care among elderly individuals in the US. Family members have been traditionally tasked
with caring for the elderly kins, including taking them to hospitals for medical care. However, the
current demographic changes are resulting in kinless elderly who cannot rely on familial
caregiving for transport to healthcare facilities and help them navigate the complex healthcare
systems. The study was based on Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage methodology framework. The
systematic review of studies was obtained from online databases. The study findings determined
that the most significant barriers to healthcare access among elderly individuals are economic and
geographic barriers. The study is relevant to the current topic because it yielded findings applicable
in addressing the current study problem. It concludes that policies to reduce economic and
geographic barriers to healthcare can significantly reduce health disparity in the US, especially
among elderly population. The study concludes by recommending increasing research to
determine the difference between elderly adults who need improved access to healthcare at the
comfort of the homes through strategies such as telemedicine and those who need institutionalized
care in elderly care facilities.

Wolfe, M. K., McDonald, N. C., & Holmes, G. M. (2020). Transportation barriers to
health care in the United States: findings from the national health interview survey, 1997–
2017. American journal of public health, 110(6), 815-822.

The study sought to determine the impact of lack of transportation on delayed healthcare in
the US. Many citizens, especially in rural areas, are missing healthcare opportunities due to a lack
of transport. The study employed a cross-sectional study design, where patients’ data obtained
from the National Health Interview Survey was analyzed. Data was analyzed using regression
analysis and multivariate analysis. The study determined that in 2017, more than 5 million
Americans missed healthcare opportunity due to a lack of transport. The problem is incredibly
persistent among low-income earners and immigrants. The study is relevant to the current topic as
it provides significant findings that can be applied to improve access to care in the US, by
eliminating transport barriers to care access. The study concludes that the rapidly evolving
transport technology can be utilized to improve access to care among Americans.

Oh, H., Trinh, M. P., Vang, C., & Becerra, D. (2020). Addressing barriers to primary care
access for Latinos in the US: an agent-based model. Journal of the Society for Social
Work and Research, 11(2), 165-184.

The purpose of the study was to assess the difference in access to care among the racial
minority groups in the US. Disparities in access to primary health care have led to health
disadvantages among non-white racial groups in America. The study used an agent-based
modeling study method to estimate the effects of language, insurance coverage, availability of
providers, and geographical distance to care providers on access to healthcare among American
populations. The study participants were 10,000 Latinos recruited from patients seeking care for
six months. Data were obtained from patient logs. The study findings indicated that the factors
contributing to limited care access among nonwhite races in the US are lack of insurance coverage,
language barrier, shortage of providers, and geographical barriers. The study findings recommend
implementing policies and programs to help nonwhite races in America overcome linguistic,
cultural, and geographical barriers to access to care. The study is relevant to the current topic as it
provides data applicable in developing policies to improve health care access for all Americans.

Learnings from the Research

The analysis of various peer-reviewed studies on the current topic has increased my
understanding of care access in the US. It has helped me realize that the most significant barriers to
healthcare in the US are financial constraints and geographical constraints. Besides, the analysis
indicates that limited access to healthcare in America is most prevalent among non-White races.
The studies recommend implementation of evidence-based changes such as telemedicine and
policies eliminating economic, cultural and geographic barriers to healthcare. The data will be
significant in my practice as a nurse. I will use the data to drive positive, evidence-based changes
to promote access to healthcare among all populations.

References

Coombs, N. C., Meriwether, W. E., Caringi, J., & Newcomer, S. R. (2021). Barriers to healthcare
access among US adults with mental health challenges: A population-based study. SSM-
Population Health, 15, 100847 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100847
Kervin, L., Teo, K., Churchill, R., Riadi, I., & Cosco, T. D. (2021). Barriers in health and social
care access and navigation for elder orphans: a scoping review protocol. BMJ open, 11(5),
e043876. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/5/e043876.
Oh, H., Trinh, M. P., Vang, C., & Becerra, D. (2020). Addressing barriers to primary care access
for Latinos in the US: an agent-based model. Journal of the Society for Social Work and
Research, 11(2), 165-184. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/708616
Wolfe, M. K., McDonald, N. C., & Holmes, G. M. (2020). Transportation barriers to health care in
the United States: findings from the national health interview survey, 1997–
2017. American journal of public health, 110(6), 815-822.
https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305579


 

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