Describe Your Works:

The first cultural artifact chosen is ‘The Third of May 1808,’ a painting completed by Francisco Goya, a Spanish Painter in 1814. Spain’s provisional government commissioned the painting at the artist’s suggestion. It commemorates Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s armies during the 1808 occupation. The painting is considered revolutionary in its style, word, subject, and intention. The painting is set in the early morning hours and depicts two groups of men: a rigidly poised firing squad and a group of captives appearing to be held at gunpoint. The Painting is in Museo del Prado, Madrid (Zappella, 2015). The second artifact selected is Guernica, an oil painting by Pablo Picasso. The painting is a grey, white, and black painting that is 3.49 meters tall. The painting depicts suffering wrought by chaos and violence. The painting depicts the bombing of Guernica, a quiet village located in the province of Biscay. The town was bombed for two hours. When the bombing took place, most of the men were away, and the village was populated mostly by children and women, as depicted in the painting (Rhodes, 2013). The painting is a representation of the victimization of the innocent and defenseless. It is an example of the worst form of inhumanity.

Discuss Your Theme:

The common theme shared by the two paintings is war brutality. War is ruthless and brutally confronts some romantic assumptions while deconstructing the nature of reality. The brutality of war is characterized by the sacrifice of many lives and sufferings to the innocent and defenseless parties (Sandman, 2023). The two paintings depict the reality of war. Guernica depicts various brutal scenarios. A wide-eyed bull with a tail is visible, suggesting flame and smoke from the bombing. The images of a grieving woman with a child in her hand and a woman’s head with her mouth wide open are visible. Other horror scenarios from the painting are the dead and dismembered soldier lying under the horse and a woman with her arm raised in terror as she is entrapped by fire (Rhodes, 2013). In his work ‘The Third of May’, Goya depicts a brutal scene of the fateful day. He does not attempt to present war as attractive or heroic. He clearly depicts a pile of bleeding and dead men, captives killed by the firing squad, and a group of captives with desperate looks as they wait for their deaths (Zappella, 2015). The scenes in both paintings are horrifying and disturbing. The reality of war is depicted.

Relate the Theme to Your Personal Experience:

The theme relates to my experience of having close relatives working in the army. Although I do not have firsthand experience with war brutality, the mental and physical sufferings of the soldiers cannot be underestimated. According to Brauman (2019), the biggest victims of war are the young men who fight in the war. Goya’s painting depicts a pile of dead men who can be assumed to be soldiers. The fear of families losing their loved ones during war is also a concern. Guernica also helps me to identify with the soldier’s inspiration to protect the defenseless. The painting depicts a helpless woman with a dead child in her hands. I am very passionate about peace and promoting peaceful conflict resolutions at all levels of society to prevent brutality that may arise from violence and war.

Relate the Theme to Professional Experiences:

The topic of war brutality is an essential aspect of the nursing profession since nursing practice involves caring for patients with adequate knowledge of their psychological and existential issues. It is estimated that in armed conflicts, 10% of those exposed to war trauma suffers serious mental health problem, while another estimated 10% develop negative behavior that hinders an individual ability to function effectively (Debarre, 2018). Common conditions that war victims are likely to develop include anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic problems such as stomach aches or insomnia (Goto et al., 2022). War brutality also results in higher mortality and disability rates than any major disease. Providing comprehensive care to patients requires understanding all aspects that influence their care, including the risk of mental illnesses and traumatic experiences’ effects. The topic creates awareness for the nursing profession on the risk of mental illnesses for victims of war and its impact on health outcomes. Any war brutality at whatever scale is essential as it impacts the demand for healthcare services, the nature of services needed, and health outcomes (Debarre, 2018). An example is a shooting in a setting, and injured people or their loved ones seek medical care services to address physical and mental illnesses. To provide quality and safe care, one must gain adequate knowledge of the reality of war and brutality. Such knowledge helps one to identify patients’ behavior, medical needs, and ability to participate in their care actively, improving their health outcomes. The topic also creates awareness of health promotion that encourages screening of mental health illnesses. Individuals, families, and communities gain knowledge on the risk of mental health illnesses, promoting timely access to mental healthcare and patient outcomes.

Describe Your Resources:

My first resource is Carr, S. E., Noya, F., Phillips, B., Harris, A., Scott, K., Hooker, C., … & Brett-MacLean, P. (2021). Health Humanities curriculum and evaluation in health professions education: a scoping review. BMC Medical Education, 21(1), 1–10. It is a scholarly article that is relevant to the topic of discussion. The resources offer significant insight into the importance of humanities in nursing. The resources provide evidence of the significance of humanities in the nursing profession. My second resources is Debarre, A. (2018). Hard to reach: Providing healthcare in armed conflict. International Peace Institute. The resource was selected since it provides an overview of the selected topic and its impact on the healthcare system. The resource outlines the impact and challenges of armed conflict on healthcare delivery.
My third resource is called Goto, R., Guerrero, A. P., Speranza, M., Fung, D., Paul, C., & Skokauskas, N. (2022). War is a public health emergency. The Lancet, 399(10332), 1302. The resource provides a brief and concise overview of the impact of war on the public’s health, especially mental wellness.
My final resource is Yeh, M. Y. (2023). Embedding the Humanities into Nursing Education. Intech Open The article was selected because it is relevant to the humanities topic in nursing. The resource provides a detailed overview of how humanities impact nursing and patient care, improving patient experience and outcomes.

Discuss the Historical Context of Your Works:

The Third of May and Guernica paintings have a historical context of war between two countries. Guernica depicts a scenario that occurred during the Spanish Civil War. The painting depicts the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian air forces at the request of the Spanish Nationalists (Rhodes, 2013). The Third of May has a historical context of war between France and Spain. It depicts the Spanish insurgents’ execution by the French troops. (Zappella, 2015).

Compare Your Two Works:

The Third of May and the Guernica paintings have certain things in common. Both paintings represent horrific events that occur during war. The two paintings depict massacres that happened in Spain to innocent people who were caught unaware. The dark colors used in both paintings represent the great tragedies that the people faced at the time of the events. However, the paintings are different since the Third of May is more naturalistic, while Guernica has very abstract differences that can be linked to the styles adopted by the painters (Buchanan, 2018). The Third of May is naturalistic since images such as those of people and castles are very clear, while in Guernica’s painting, the images of animals, humans, and buildings are not clearly visible. The two aspects impact the emotions evoked by the artists in the two paintings.

Discuss the Medium of Each Work:

The Guernica is a mural-sized oil canvas painting measuring 3.5 m by 7.8m (Rhodes, 2013). The artist utilized the grisaille technique to paint his work in only black and white to symbolize mourning, death, and tragedy, as he believed that using bright colors would distract the viewer from the agony depicted in the scene (Xifra & Heath, 2018). The medium of the third of May is oil on canvas that measures 268 x 347 cm and utilizes the Romanticism style. Romanticism style emerged with the Romanticism art movement that promoted the artists’ expansion of emotions with scenes of horror, anger, suspense, or love. The Third of May captures feelings of fear and despair through gestures, expressions, and poses of those waiting to die.

State Your Thesis:

The two paintings depict the unpleasant reality of war by depicting horrific scenes of brutality against innocent people.

Identify Your Ideal Audience:

The ideal audience for the presentation is patients and their families. War has a direct and indirect impact on populations. The patients seeking healthcare are impacted directly, while families suffer indirect consequences, but attention to both parties is significant to health and patient outcomes.

Make Adjustments for Your Audience:

The message will be adjusted by making peace the key point. The horrific events portrayed in the paintings will be discussed in the context of war brutality and the need to prevent such occurrences in society. For example, the Third Day of May is considered an anti-war statement despite the depiction of the most chilling images. The images have been interpreted as criticism of nations that wage war on others and human beings that inflict pain on others (Zappella, 2015).


List Three Challenges:

After reviewing your draft, ask yourself this: Where is my target audience going to get confused? Keep an eye out for

1. background information readers won’t know about the artifacts you’re discussing;

2. terms readers won’t know, which you will want to define;

3. how you’re using specific terms (e.g., if you’ve chosen the theme of courage, you’ll want to define how you’re using the term courage in this conversation); and

4. claims you make without support (remember, your readers haven’t worked through this course, so if you can imagine them narrowing their eyes in confusion, make a note).





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