Using your PICO question, search for a relevant primary research article and critique the article for its potential to provide an evidence-based solution. Note that the article you find here can be used in your final project. In your initial post discuss the following:

1. What type of design was used?
2, Was the sample size appropriate and was a power analysis used to estimate sample size needs?
3. If an instrument was used, was the validity and reliability reported on?
4. What was the statistical or clinical significance of the findings?
5. If the results are generalizable, how can these findings be used in nursing practice?
6. Are the best practices of research ethics addressed?


Respond to two of your peers and briefly analyze their articles, commenting on areas where you agree or differ on the findings and why.


PICO Question:

Does decreased nurse staffing ratios increase adverse patient outcomes for laboring mothers?

What type of design was used?

The research study utilized Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing and the Job Demands Resource Model as its theoretical framework. The Roy Adaptation Theory can be utilized as a framework to develop and assess a hospital-based program aimed at meeting the requirements of the healthcare team. Job demands-resources The model posits that when there is a high level of job demands and a low level of job resources, it leads to an increase in stress and burnout.

Was the sample size appropriate and was a power analysis used to estimate sample size needs?

A deliberate number of 119 labor and delivery registered nurses was collected from the states of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. The sample size was on the smaller size of your average study, but you must think of the population of labor and delivery nurses and this sample size may be considered sufficient. This article does not state that a power analysis was used to estimate a sample size. The research’s findings are only relevant to the Labor and Delivery of a specific hospital that participated in the study. Hence, the limited size of the sample can be regarded as a constraint in the study. Nevertheless, the study methodology can be reproduced in various contexts since it has been thoroughly explained.

If an instrument was used, was the validity and reliability reported on?

The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, Job Satisfaction Survey, Three-Component Employee Commitment Survey, and Turnover Intention Scale-6 were used to measure variables such as staffing levels, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention (Wilson-Chatman, 2020). These instruments have strong validity and reliability as they are used frequently in addressing the commitment and job demands of individuals in healthcare.

What was the statistical or clinical significance of the findings?

The statistical findings are as follows, the results showed a strong correlation between nurse staffing levels and turnover intention (r = -.78, p < .01), job satisfaction and turnover intention (r = -.70, p < .01), organizational commitment and turnover intention (r = .65, p < .01), and a combination of variables with turnover intention (r = -.70, p < .01). The findings demonstrated that the number of staff members and the level of job satisfaction were significant predictors of turnover intention among L&D nurses (Wilson-Chatman, 2020). These factors, namely inadequate staffing ratios, absenteeism, and increased workloads, have a negative impact on staff morale, patient safety, and the quality of patient outcomes. The hospital administrators should consider these research findings when formulating strategies to decrease employee turnover. The hospital management should implement the existing guidelines on staffing norms and develop a plan for these units to ensure consistency in the utilization and management of human resources.

If the results are generalizable, how can these findings be used in nursing practice?

To promote the application of the results of research in practice, nurse and midwifery managers should exhibit a distinct dedication to research. It is imperative to secure the essential resources and funds to establish on-site intranet and internet facilities, enabling access to pertinent research papers. Furthermore, it is imperative to decrease the workload of the staff to ensure that nurses have dedicated time to utilize these facilities and enhance their research and critical evaluation abilities. Instead of being generalizable or not. Clinicians can consistently argue that the results of a study are not applicable to their patients. This frequently occurs when the findings contradict customary procedures. The goal of evidence-based practice is to rationally evaluate how research findings will inform treatment decisions.

Are the best practices of research ethics addressed?

Yes, the best practices of research ethics were addressed based on the social and clinical significance. Scientific validity referring to the extent to which a scientific study or experiment is reliable, accurate, and unbiased in its findings. Impartial selection of subjects, positive balance between risks and benefits, and evaluation conducted by an impartial entity. Along with consent obtained after providing all necessary information and ensuring the individual fully understands the implications and consequences. Lastly, respect for individuals with potential and those who have already registered. Clinical research enhances scientific comprehension and fosters human well-being. Nevertheless, it is crucial to bear in mind the individuals who willingly offer their services to partake in research. Researchers can employ precautions during the planning, implementation, and follow-up stages of studies to safeguard the participants involved in the research. Clinical research institutes ethical guidelines to safeguard patient volunteers and uphold the integrity of the scientific process.


Wilson-Chatman, J. (2020). Staffing Levels, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment,

and Labor and Delivery Nurses’ Turnover Intention: Correlational Study. University

of Phoenix.

Required Resources that might help:

Textbook: Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, Chapters 3 (pp. 48–58) and 6

Chapter 3 (pp. 48–58) discusses how to critique research articles. Chapter 6 reviews how to obtain research articles and the role of literature reviews.

This research guide was created specifically for the Nursing Program and contains a variety of resources related to the assignments in this course. For this module, pay particular attention to the annotated bibliography, located under the “Course Final Project” tab, to assist you in completing Milestone Three assignment.

The Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) offers critical appraisal checklists for evaluating research. This resource will allow for a critical analysis of a research study for quality. This can be used to support your Milestone Three submission.
Research guides are developed by librarians to help you find and locate the information you need for your classes, papers, and projects. This guide explains the purpose and process of preparing an annotated bibliography and includes examples. Use this resource to assist you in completing Milestone Three of the final project.





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