You should respond to your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Use at least 1 academic source for each response less than 5 years old. Each reply 150 words

Osteoarthritis (OA) is primarily characterized by progressive cartilage degeneration. The degenerative joint disease osteoarthritis (OA) is an alternative term for osteoarthrosis. OA can affect any joint, although it is most frequently found in the wrists, hips, and knees. When cartilage is depleted, bone may begin to press against bone. This causes discomfort, rigidity, edema and a decline in joint function. Osteoarthritis is inadequately titled, as the suffix "-itis" suggests the existence of inflammation. Nevertheless, OA is asymptomatic of inflammation. Hence, an alternative name for the condition is osteoarthritis, which is degeneration of the joints. Osteoarthrosis additionally encompasses cartilage degeneration within the joint and changes to the adjacent bone (Mahmoudian et al., 2021). It results in joint discomfort, morning rigidity, and a tendency for the joint to harden due to limited activity.
The following factors may elevate an individual’s susceptibility to OA: Overuse or injury to a joint; age, since middle-aged and elderly adults have a higher risk of developing OA compared to younger individuals; gender, since females have a higher risk of developing OA than men after the age of 50; and a family history of OA (Sharma, 2021). The case study identifies the following risk factors: advanced age (the patient is 71 years old), gender (women have an increased probability of developing OA than men), familial predisposition to joint problems, seasonal variations in body temperature, and obesity.
In both types of arthritis, different joints are predominantly afflicted. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is typically symmetrical and affects the small and delicate joints of the ankles and hands. Osteoarthritis is typically asymmetrical and impacts weight-bearing joints, including the hips and knees. Nevertheless, OA of the hand is prevalent, potentially leading to a conflation with RA (Hall et al., 2022). A patient’s physical examinations and medical history, without or with radiographic evidence such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or x-ray, are utilized to diagnose OA.
Heberden & Bouchard nodules, joint stiffness, and extreme pain exacerbated by movement and prolonged use in the hands are the most prevalent symptoms of OA. Among the physical examination symptoms observed in individuals with OA are crepitus, diminished range of motion, and effusion. In addition to antibodies, RF, and anti-CCP, the patient’s physical examination and medical history revealing synovitis in multiple joints is used to diagnose RA (Mohammed et al., 2020). Undoubtedly, misclassifications do transpire.

Age is the most common risk factor for Alzheimer’s, where the risk of developing it increases with age (Silva et al., 2019). The second factor is family history and genetics, where Individuals with a close blood relative (parent or sibling) with Alzheimer’s have a higher risk of developing the disease. Another factor is cardiovascular diseases, where the prevalence of CVDs is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer’s (Silva et al., 2019). Head injury is another factor, where severe or repeated head injuries, such as those that occur with contact sports, can increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s later in life. According to Silva et al. (2019), lifestyle factors such as lack of physical and cognitive activity, smoking, and poor diet have been linked to higher Alzheimer’s risk. The key similarities and differences between the major types of dementia include the facts that all involve a decline in cognitive function and ability to perform everyday activities. Secondly, all become more common with increasing age. However, there are several differences between Alzheimer’s disease, Vascular dementia, Dementia with Lewy bodies, and Frontotemporal dementia.
It is the most common type of dementia. Amyloid plaques and tau tangles accumulating in the brain is one of its characteristics (Maclin et al., 2019). It leads to a gradual decline in memory and other cognitive abilities.
Vascular dementia
A scarcity of blood flow or oxygen to the brain brought about by reduced flow may be due to stroke or other vascular conditions. Its symptoms may appear suddenly, with each step evolving over time.
Dementia with Lewy bodies
The latter refers to unusual accumulations of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain (Maclin et al., 2019). Symptoms include inconsistent thinking; parkinsonism; and visual hallucinations.
Frontotemporal dementia
The damage occurs in the front and temporal parts of the brain. Typically, it’s more associated with personality changes, behavioral shifts, or difficulties in speech as opposed to loss of memory (Maclin et al., 2019).

With the progression of psychiatric nursing, the significance of the role of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in mental health care has become progressively important. The APN’s practices must stay viable and successful by engaging in strategic business planning. This case study will illustrate the process of APN business planning from a systems thinking perspective, pointing out the continuum that affects their practices. It will explain how successful business planning is approached holistically concerning the healthcare system.
Systems thinking involves seeing a situation or problem as part of a larger, more interrelated system (Li et al., 2021). In the context of APN business planning, this means recognizing the dynamic relationships and interdependencies among various components, such as organizational structures, regulatory frameworks, financial realities, and professional collaborations. By applying systems thinking, APNs can create business plans that recognize the complexity and interconnectedness of these factors.
APNs can build successful business plans by understanding the organizational structure they practice. An understanding of administrative hierarchies, decision-making processes, and communication channels within a healthcare organization is necessary to successfully develop business plans (Joseph & Gaba, 2020). Aligning business plans with an organizational structure makes for efficient integration, effective collaboration with other healthcare professionals, and the delivery of mental healthcare services at an optimal level.
APN business planning requires understanding regulatory frameworks that can vary depending on the practice environment. State and federal regulations shape the scope of practice, reimbursement policies, and licensure requirements for APNs. Analyzing these regulations is necessary to ensure compliance and identify opportunities for advocacy from a systems-thinking perspective (Li et al., 2021). APNs promote legal and ethical practice in an increasingly complex healthcare environment by aligning business plans with regulatory requirements.
When creating an APN practice that will last, the first step lies in a firm foundation of financials. Through the lens of a systems thinker, a detailed analysis of budgeting, reimbursement models, and resource allocation is necessary (Li et al., 2021). APNs must balance delivering high-quality mental health care while staying financially viable. Partnering with someone knowledgeable in financial planning or an administrator is crucial in this phase to develop a realistic and sustainable financial model for the practice.

he role of advanced practice nurse (APN) in healthcare, and the area of nursing, is becoming increasingly important because it is a role that cannot be overlooked. APNs are a type of advanced practice nurses that is composed of nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives who, together with physicians and other health care providers, offer high-quality care to their patients (Wan & Xia, 2023). Nevertheless, as advanced practice nurses contemplate their role transition, we should consider how to develop business plans by analyzing the systemic factors that make them move into their roles, the interconnectedness of these factors, and how they affect their practices and patient care. An APN business plan design that is system-based means an understanding and positioning of various system elements within the healthcare system toward the achievement of better nursing care delivery, better outcomes, and sustainability (Wan & Xia, 2023). This system approach is composed of several vital aspects which include environmental analysis, internal assessment, stakeholder engagement, market segmentation and targeting, service portfolio development, financial planning and control, quality improvement and performance measurement, and technology integration.
APNs have to effectively assess the internal as well as external factors in which they are working. It involves, for example, the licensing and reimbursement schemes as well as the demand from the patients and the competition (Wheeler et al., 2022). That is why they should monitor these variables and assess the environment, which could be crucial when they are developing their business plans. On top of this, one should examine one’s internal abilities and resources, which is very important for the advanced practice nurse profession. This covers the assessment of the candidates on their clinical skills, the extent of their scope of practice, the patient-to-physician networks, and their financial and organizational competencies (Wheeler et al., 2022). Analyzing the internal environment allows APNs to identify the best options and to improve the areas of weakness.
In addition, it is important to engage stakeholders such as patients, care providers, healthcare organizations, professional associations, policymakers, and other healthcare providers at all stages of the process (Petkovic et al., 2020). The participation of the stakeholders is one of the ways of engaging them, and collaboration among the healthcare providers, and the APN services compatibility with the whole system of healthcare. In addition to that, APNs should identify the targeted audience or the market segment they are planning to service and service them based on demographic characteristics, healthcare needs, and preferences (Wheeler et al., 2022). Through the identification of the precise demands of the population of the target group, APNs can tailor their services and marketing strategies, which will attract patients with direct needs and the situation they find themselves in.




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