General perspectives on behavior of human being each of which stresses various factors.

 

 

 

Five General Perspectives on Human Behavior

Abstract

Origin, development and maintenance of human relation are determined by human experience. This experience engages five general perspectives on behavior of human being each of which stresses various factors. Thee factors are learning, biological, social and cultural, psychodynamic and cognitive perspective. This research paper explains how the beginning, development and maintenance of a firm marital relationship can be explained in connection to each of these perspectives.

Introduction

Happy marriage relationships are perhaps the happiest feelings and but also complicated part of relationships known to man. The manifestation of the love shared by romantic couples can be easily viewed by the naked eye. It makes us look immature with envy when we see romantic people sharing their love to each other. During the formative years of the relationship, the feeling of jubilation is ever present. Love is considered be biological for there is the innate need to be close to somebody, to share our feelings and see them reciprocated, to be touched, to be cared for, and to be loved in return. But it should be noted that it takes sometimes for humans being attain love. First, there’s the holding, kissing, stroking, and nursing of the infant (Alberoni, 1983). As human beings, our behaviors are greatly influenced by at least five general perspectives these are biological, learning, social and cultural, cognitive, and psychodynamic influences.

Many marital relationship can be said to have biological perspective, it can be explained that human beings are actually made up of genes whose reproduction is the main objective. According to (Laland and Brown, 2002), husbands need to be sexually connected to their wives to enable them to produce their heirs. Certainly, the biological aspect appears to be unromantic. It is self explanatory that to produce offspring humans must practice the sexual act. Couples must perform the act to have their children. On the other hand we must view the romantic love as to contain sexual fulfillment. In biblical context God ruled to his people to `go forth and multiply. If sex lacks between a husband and a wife their relationships resembles any other relation an individual can make with other persons. In normal cases, men like women who posses the attributes which reflect health and fertility, Women on the other hand, like men who have characteristics which reflect status and health. Apparently the first priority of both men and women qualities are non-biological. According to (Laland and Brown, 2002), in a study conducted by psychologist David Buss among over10000 people in 37 cultures, it was discovered that the first priority qualities for both men and woman which they look for in mate is intelligence and kindness. However, even these qualities make genetic sense: kindness, and health which indicate the social and psychological qualities which are important for human beings to triumphantly nurture their offspring.

Culture and social

The study carried out indicates that marriage love virtually exist in all cultures ever studied. It has been noticed that in some societies marriages are arranged either parents or village elders; however it is in rarer cases that the couples are forced to marry. The couple or the young people have to accept and give consent of acceptance to marriage relationship. The involvement of young people in their marriage arrangement is crucial because marriage has economic and /or political reasons, such as a alliance of two authoritative families. Marital love or in the words romantic love is being despised in authoritarian or caste-conscious societies, this is because love is democratic and thus interferes with power plays (Alberoni, 1983). Women desires are to get husbands and lovers. If their intention is different then they can go for other men such as military or work mate. It should be noticed that social and cultural practices are crucial in determination or modeling of husbands and wives of the society. Married women will be obliged in some communities to follow the cultural activities of the husbands community of which she has become a member of. Failure to follow the rules social and cultural ethics of the community can lead to breakage of family relation ship. Community cultures raise a person’s sense of worth as well as his or her incentive to enter into relationships. Cultures that are considered to be most likely to promote long and stable love relationships are those that encourage increased gusto in people and their aptitude to take action.

The basic assumption of learning perspectives is that several determinants of human behavior are mainly found on the external environment. When those environmental events which relate to individual behavior, are well analyzed it is easy to predict the subsequent behavior of a person. In relationship when couples are knowledgeable it is expected that they will use the skills they have learnt in their live to predict the likely behavior of the other partner. The moment the relationship has started then the individuals acquire different environment, several problem arise in this new environment which can break a relationship. Therapist will advise the couple based on this new environment and may be able to come up with treatment based on the environmental factors that cause the changes of behavior of individuals. Therefore through the knowledge of individual environmental effect on personal behavior a marriage relationship can be strongly developed and maintained (Jacobson & Margolin, 1979). The understanding of individual behavior is one of the subjects studied by scientists in what is called behavioral science. A couple would therefore require to understand the behavior prediction for happy live in future relationship. Marriage love is also part of the learning perspective of human behavior. We should realize that realize that love is a difficult thing, which is involves serious emotions that must be nurtured over time the couple need to understand one anther for some time to enable them leave comfortably. The husband has to learn what the wife likes and what she hates while the wife has to learn what makes the husband happy in order to get a reciprocating love that she desires.

The psychodynamic perspective of marriage holds that long-lasting and stable relationships form and are maintained when people are comparatively free of neuroses and have good personality or self-functioning. Alternatively, it is the same factors that make the mental to function in a health manner that make two marriage partners to operate in a marriage in a marriage in an approach that expresses love and defends its stability. Psychodynamic is concerned with psychological forces that affect human behavior with an emphasis on interaction between mindful and unconscious motivation. In a marital marriage the concept of psychodynamics will involve energizing of an individual brain through a process commonly known as libido. The complex energy gained by the brain controls the inner conflict of a person which is expressed through certain behaviors or emotions. They are these emotional motives, forces and human needs that lead someone to look for a mating friend (Klimek, 1979). With the same attraction forces married people are able to remain together and separation becomes almost impossible. The forces affect even the mental consciousness and leads to exchange of psychic energy between lovers that enable them share their love generously. Without these forces love can never get the interest of remaining together in their lives.

In cognitive perspective the spouses view each other as a source of their marriage problems (Cover, 1990). After some time in marriage life the partners’ see each other as resistive to change to positive life and assume partners to have constant behavior. During courtship the couples only focused on positive part of their partners, however this changes with sometime and they start seeing only the negative part of their partners. According to (Cover, 1990), the cognitive perspective on loving relationships and stable marriages is associated with whether people think in a manner that is adaptive to the concerns, goals, conflicts and cares of a stable and long-lasting relationship, or whether they have dysfunctional relationship beliefs and thought processes and colleagues.

Cognitive focuses on various issues in marital relationship, which plays major role in maintenance and development of marital dysfunction. These issues include consideration of perceptions; which is considerate of what event occurred, attribution; looking why the event occurred, expectancies; which predicts what is likely to occur, assumptions; focusing on the nature of the universe and event correlation , and believes on what should be (Cover, 1990). It should be noted that the list contain vital information regarding how an individual can interact with other people through understanding their own environment and making appropriate decision. It only through such understanding that married couples can start, develop and maintain their marital love.

Conclusion

The five general perspective of human behavior can be viewed to have contradicting role in developing and maintaining of love relationship. An individual should keenly evaluate what each perspective in the behavior has to do in our action.

References

Alberoni, F. (1983). Falling in love. New York: Random House.

Cover, F. (1990). Cognitive-behavioral marital therapy. Levittown,PA: Psychology Press .

Jacobson, N. s., & Margolin, G. (1979). Marital therapy: strategies based on social learning and behavior exchange principles (2nd ed.). New York: Psychology Press.

Klimek, D. ( 1979). Beneath Mate Selection and marriage. : New York u.a.

Laland, K. N., & Brown, G. R. (2002). Sense and nonsense: evolutionary perspectives on human behaviour. Oxford,UK: Oxford University Press.


 

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