demonstrate evidence of computer competency

This assignment is a computer-based exercise using a subset of the UK Nursing and Health Essay Help
This assignment is a computer-based exercise using a subset of the UK Childrens Dental Health Survey 2013 data. You are allowed to use any computer software familiar to you to complete the exercise. While requiring you to demonstrate evidence of computer competency, you should focus more on correctly presenting and interpreting the data/analysis/results. [Background] Childrens Dental Health Survey is a decennial national survey conducted since 1973. It aims to produce dental health statistics of 5, 8, 12 and 15 years olds in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The data were collected through dental examination for all 4 age groups, by self-completion questionnaires of 12/15 years old pupils, and by questionnaires from the parents. For more information please refer to https://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB17137 For the purpose of this assignment, 18 variables from 9866 children have been chosen. These cover all the samples involving children from England,

Wales and Northern Ireland. The first 7 variables (fromcases to grp_ethe2) are background variables; the next 8 variables (from gingivae13  to goodall) are from dental examinations; and the last 3 variables (pupq4, pupq15, ppdenhlth) are from pupil questionnaires. For simplicity, we ignore the original sampling scheme and assume the study subjects formed a simple random samples from all the 12 and 15 year olds who live in England. We will discuss the impact of such an assumption at the end of the assignment. Note that all the questions/inferences made in this assignment are confined to this assignment and will not necessarily reflect true dental health statistics in England. [Question 1] Only the records from age groups 12 and 15 and those who live in England are needed for this whole assignment.

1.1) Create a file that contains only records from pupils aged 12 and 15 and those who live in England (variables age and country).

1.2) Design a table with relevant summary/descriptive statistics to describe this dataset. Write a paragraph (no more than 250 words) to describe the data and any findings from this table. This table should contain the following variables. age, sex, ewurbnrl, grp_ethe2, numperm, numteeth adcyany2. You can manipulate the variables whenever necessary. [Question 2] The variable numtdecav in the dataset described number of teeth with clinical decay. 2.1) Examine the distribution of the variable numtdecav for 12 year olds using a frequency table and histogram. Include these in your report. Describe the characteristics of this variable. 2.2) Generate a box and whisker plot of numtdecav for 12 year olds. Include the boxplot in your answer and describe different aspects of the box and whisker plot.

2.3) For someone who is interested in using numtdecav for any inference, please suggest possible ways of analysis to accommodate the features of such a variable. [Question 3] Create a new variable anyperio according to the following algorithm to define subjects who having any periodontal conditions. Assign anyperio=1 if a subject has any one of the following 3 conditions: some gum disease (gingivae13=1), presence of plaque(plaque13=1) or calculus (calculus13=1). Assign anyperio=0 only if all three aspects show signs of being healthy (gingivae13=2 and plaque13=2 and calculus13=2). For the rest, anyperio9 as perio status undefined

. 3.1) Cross-tabulate variables age with anyperio. What is the prevalence of having any perio condition in each age group?

3.2) Conduct an analysis to study the relationship between periodontal condition and age. State your hypotheses and write up your conclusions. [Question 4] In this Survey questionnaire data were collected on school pupils attitudes and oral health behaviour. A researcher is interested in studying whether or not pupilssatisfaction with the appearance of their teeth (pupq4) is independent of frequencyof brushing teeth (pupq15) on 15 year olds.

4.1) Use any software to generate a two-way table for the variables pupq4 andpupq15.

4.2) Conduct an analysis to discover the relationship between satisfaction ofappearance and brushing. Please state the hypothesis, conduct an analysis,and interpret your findings. [Question 5] In this Survey a childs overall oral health has been defined by using both DentalExamination (goodall) as well as by pupil self-reported questionnaires(ppdenhlth). Let us assume the results from the professional Dental Examinationreflect the true status of a childs oral health (reference standard). Somebody has suggested to use pupil self-reported questionnaires as a screening tool for the purpose, such that only those self-reported as Fair or worse will be referred for further dental check-ups.

5.1) Fill in the following table using 12 year olds data. [2] 12 YEARS OLD Reference Standard(Dental examine) Not Good(bad) overall Goodoverall Total Screening tool(Questionnaire) Fair or Worse Good/Very good Total

5.2)What is the estimate of prevalence of the Not Good/bad overall oral health?

5.3)Calculate and interpret the sensitivity as well as the 95% confidence intervals of thisquestionnaire screening test.

5.4)Calculate and interpret the specificity as well as its 95% confidence intervals of thisquestionnaire screening test. 5.5)Calculate and interpret the positive predictive value (PPV) of this questionnaire screening test.

5.6)Calculate and interpret the negative predictive value (NPV) of this screening test.

5.7)Briefly comment on the utility of using self-reported questionnaires as a screening test inthis artificial dental health application. [Question 6] Although using the real survey data, for this assignment we assume the samplingscheme used is simple random sample.

6.1) Please explain the meaning of simple random sample.

6.2) Variable fsm indicates those children who qualify for free school meals. fsmhas been used as an indicator of those coming from a deprived background.Tabulate the variable fsm by age and describe this table.

6.3) The original sampling design of the Survey used a cluster sampling scheme whiletreating an individual school as a sampling unit. The survey also takes extra samplesfrom the deprived area. Assume the % who qualify for free school meals (fsm)were artificially oversampled from the general 12 years old population. Brieflydiscuss the impact of such a sampling strategy on inference of the prevalence of badoverall oral health in Question 5.2.; This assignment is a computer-based exercise using a subset of the UK Childrens Dental Health Survey 2013 data. You are allowed to use any computer software familiar to you to complete the exercise. While requiring you to demonstrate evidence of computer competency, you should focus more on correctly presenting and interpreting the data/analysis/results. [Background] Childrens Dental Health Survey is a decennial national survey conducted since 1973. It aims to produce dental health statistics of 5, 8, 12 and 15 years olds in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The data were collected through dental examination for all 4 age groups, by self-completion questionnaires of 12/15 years old pupils, and by questionnaires from the parents. For more information please refer to https://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB17137 For the purpose of this assignment, 18 variables from 9866 children have been chosen. These cover all the samples involving children from England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The first 7 variables (fromcases to grp_ethe2) are background variables; the next 8 variables (from gingivae13  to goodall) are from dental examinations; and the last 3 variables (pupq4, pupq15, ppdenhlth) are from pupil questionnaires. For simplicity, we ignore the original sampling scheme and assume the study subjects formed a simple random samples from all the 12 and 15 year olds who live in England. We will discuss the impact of such an assumption at the end of the assignment. Note that all the questions/inferences made in this assignment are confined to this assignment and will not necessarily reflect true dental health statistics in England. [Question 1] Only the records from age groups 12 and 15 and those who live in England are needed for this whole assignment. 1.1) Create a file that contains only records from pupils aged 12 and 15 and those who live in England (variables age and country). 1.2) Design a table with relevant summary/descriptive statistics to describe this dataset. Write a paragraph (no more than 250 words) to describe the data and any findings from this table. This table should contain the following variables. age, sex, ewurbnrl, grp_ethe2, numperm, numteeth adcyany2. You can manipulate the variables whenever necessary. [Question 2] The variable numtdecav in the dataset described number of teeth with clinical decay. 2.1) Examine the distribution of the variable numtdecav for 12 year olds using a frequency table and histogram. Include these in your report. Describe the characteristics of this variable. 2.2) Generate a box and whisker plot of numtdecav for 12 year olds. Include the boxplot in your answer and describe different aspects of the box and whisker plot.

2.3) For someone who is interested in using numtdecav for any inference, please suggest possible ways of analysis to accommodate the features of such a variable. [Question 3] Create a new variable anyperio according to the following algorithm to define subjects who having any periodontal conditions. Assign anyperio=1 if a subject has any one of the following 3 conditions: some gum disease (gingivae13=1), presence of plaque(plaque13=1) or calculus (calculus13=1). Assign anyperio=0 only if all three aspects show signs of being healthy (gingivae13=2 and plaque13=2 and calculus13=2). For the rest, anyperio9 as perio status undefined.

3.1) Cross-tabulate variables age with anyperio. What is the prevalence of having any perio condition in each age group? 3.2) Conduct an analysis to study the relationship between periodontal condition and age. State your hypotheses and write up your conclusions. [Question 4] In this Survey questionnaire data were collected on school pupils attitudes and oral health behaviour. A researcher is interested in studying whether or not pupilssatisfaction with the appearance of their teeth (pupq4) is independent of frequencyof brushing teeth (pupq15) on 15 year olds. 4.1) Use any software to generate a two-way table for the variables pupq4 andpupq15. 4.2) Conduct an analysis to discover the relationship between satisfaction ofappearance and brushing. Please state the hypothesis, conduct an analysis,and interpret your findings.

[Question 5] In this Survey a childs overall oral health has been defined by using both DentalExamination (goodall) as well as by pupil self-reported questionnaires(ppdenhlth). Let us assume the results from the professional Dental Examinationreflect the true status of a childs oral health (reference standard). Somebody has suggested to use pupil self-reported questionnaires as a screening tool for the purpose, such that only those self-reported as Fair or worse will be referred for further dental check-ups. 5.1) Fill in the following table using 12 year olds data. [2] 12 YEARS OLD Reference Standard(Dental examine) Not Good(bad) overall Goodoverall Total Screening tool(Questionnaire) Fair or Worse Good/Very good Total

5.2)What is the estimate of prevalence of the Not Good/bad overall oral health? 5.3)Calculate and interpret the sensitivity as well as the 95% confidence intervals of thisquestionnaire screening test. 5.4)Calculate and interpret the specificity as well as its 95% confidence intervals of thisquestionnaire screening test. 5.5)Calculate and interpret the positive predictive value (PPV) of this questionnaire screening test. 5.6)Calculate and interpret the negative predictive value (NPV) of this screening test. 5.7)Briefly comment on the utility of using self-reported questionnaires as a screening test inthis artificial dental health application. [Question 6] Although using the real survey data, for this assignment we assume the samplingscheme used is simple random sample.

6.1) Please explain the meaning of simple random sample. 6.2) Variable fsm indicates those children who qualify for free school meals. fsmhas been used as an indicator of those coming from a deprived background.Tabulate the variable fsm by age and describe this table.

6.3) The original sampling design of the Survey used a cluster sampling scheme whiletreating an individual school as a sampling unit. The survey also takes extra samplesfrom the deprived area. Assume the % who qualify for free school meals (fsm)were artificially oversampled from the general 12 years old population. Brieflydiscuss the impact of such a sampling strategy on inference of the prevalence of badoverall oral health in Question 5.2.


 

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